Resources for Causal Reasoning in Health Services Research

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Glossary of Terms

Exchangeability
Definition
Exchangeability

independence of the counterfactual outcome and the actual treatment

Excess proportion
Definition
Excess proportion

a proportion of cases that would not have occurred had the population not been exposed, relative to cases when the entire population was exposed (i.e. counterfactual risk when exposed is compared with counterfactual risk when unexposed)

Consistency assumption
Definition
Consistency assumption

for a given individual, the observed outcome equals the potential outcome, as a function of intervention, when the intervention is set to the observed level

Conditional independence
Definition
Conditional independence

equivalence of the joint distribution of two variables to the product of distributions of each variable, given value of a third variable

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