Resources for Causal Reasoning in Health Services Research

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Glossary of Terms

Indirect effect
Definition
Indirect effect

the expected change in outcome in response to changing mediating variable to the level it would have attained had exposure changed by one unit, while holding exposure at initial level

Propensity score
Definition
Propensity score

the probability of treatment given baseline characteristics

Exchangeability
Definition
Exchangeability

independence of the counterfactual outcome and the actual treatment

Instrumental variable
Definition
Instrumental variable

a variable relative to the total effect of exposure on outcome if there is a set of measurements, unaffected by the exposure, such the instrument is conditionally independent of the outcome given the set and the instrument is not independent of the exposure conditional on the set

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