Resources for Causal Reasoning in Health Services Research

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Glossary of Terms

Identifiability of causal effects
Definition
Identifiability of causal effects

the causal effect of intervention is identifiable if all backdoor paths between intervention and outcome variables can be blocked in the causal diagram; stratifying on the sufficient set removes all confounding bias in estimates of the causal effect of X on Y

Positivity
Definition
Positivity

definition

Interventional probability
Definition
Interventional probability

the probability of outcome of a deliberately set intervention; a truncated form of factorization of the joint probability function in which the conditional probability for intervened variables is replaced with 1, and all other conditional probabilities are considered at set values of the intervened variables

Exchangeability
Definition
Exchangeability

independence of the counterfactual outcome and the actual treatment

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