Resources for Causal Reasoning in Health Services Research

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Glossary of Terms

Marginal structural models
Definition
Marginal structural models

link the expected value of a counterfactual outcome to covariates; unlike in regression models, the expected value is not conditional on the covariates

Selection bias
Definition
Selection bias

the lack of similarity of study groups in terms of other variables, resulting from choice of treatment on the basis of baseline characteristics

Exchangeability
Definition
Exchangeability

independence of the counterfactual outcome and the actual treatment

Positivity
Definition
Positivity

definition

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