Resources for Causal Reasoning in Health Services Research

Category Archives: Q&A

Bidirectional arrows in DAGs

Is there a way to graphically depict two intervening variables that influence each other in a DAG? By definition, it is clear that a DAG is acyclic and cannot include bi-directional arrows. Yet, I wonder if there is way to allow for the inclusion of this type of relationship in a causal model.

Thank-you! More